Plethodon glutinosus (Northern sticky salamander) (2023)

geographic scope

The slime salamander is widely distributed in the eastern and central United States. The range begins in central New York and southernmost Wisconsin, covers most of the East Coast, moves south to central Florida and the Gulf Coast, and west to parts of eastern Texas and Oklahoma area. The lower Mississippi region is apparently absent of this animal, presumably because of frequent disturbance of flooding in the region's preferred habitat for mucus salamanders (Grobman 1944).

  • biogeographic region
  • near pole
    • native


Slimy salamanders are commonly found in wooded areas and under rocks and rotting logs beside streams, and in crevices and the edges of ravines on shale banks (Davidson 1956; Grobman 1944). It usually uses the burrows of animals and insects to move underground (Cowley 1999). The mean distribution area was 3.01 +/- 0.613 m2 for adults and 3.46 +/- 1.851 m2 for juveniles (Marvin 1998).

  • terrestrial biome
  • Bosque

physical description

The skin of the slime salamander is predominantly black covered with numerous silvery-white or coppery-white spots, or both; the ventral side is of varying shades, but is usually lighter than the dorsal side. This creature is distinguished from other black salamanders in the range by the presence of its nasolabial folds. most notably,Glutinous rice yellowIt is defined by the release of a thick, glue-like secretion from glands in the skin. It has 16 rib grooves, rarely 15 or 17, and is usually 4.75 to 6.75 inches in length (Conant and Collins 1998). Pups are born with a slight dark coloration only on the back, not on the ventral side. After three days, melanin in spots began to appear on the back. Adult females have slightly longer snout-to-vent length than adult males, but are similar in appearance (Highton 1956).

  • other physical characteristics
  • variable temperature
  • bilateral symmetry
  • average quality
    4.2 grams
    0.15 oz
  • average basal metabolic rate


  • development-life cycle
  • abnormal


breedingGlutinous rice yellowIt occurs in early April and can spawn anytime from late spring in northern regions to late summer in southern regions. Eggs are laid in moist places such as burrows or under rotting bark. Clutch size varies from 4 to 12 eggs. Pups emerge about three months after spawning (Highton 1956). Juveniles do not pass through an aquatic stage and develop directly to adults, as this species is entirely terrestrial (Feder 1983).

Female sticky salamanders are not sexually mature until they are two years old, and they are ready to lay eggs when they are three years old. The same is true for most males, although some have been found to be able to reproduce as early as two years old. In areas with a shorter growing season, it will almost certainly take three years to reach sexual maturity (Highton 1962).

  • key reproductive traits
  • dioecious / dioecious / dioecious (dioecious)
  • average number of offspring
  • Mean age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
    Gender: Female
    910 days
  • Mean age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
    910 days

life expectancy/life


The slime salamander, like most toothless animals, is a territorial species. Individuals, both males and females, can become very aggressive in competition for space with members of their own species and competing species (Marvin 1998). Females are fiercely protective of their nests, neglect foraging in some cases, and may discard eggs if the nest is found to be damaged (Highton 1956).

Courtship involves the male performing an elaborate dance, see Organ 1960. Notably, prior to the dance, the male's jaw, feet, and white spots turn pink and then bright red.

Due to malnutrition, slimy newts are prone to parasitism by some nematodes, especially when guarding a colony of eggs. The species' small range also makes it a victim of predation for many of the snakes found in this geographic range.Glutinous rice yellow(Haydn 1956).

  • key behavior
  • to moths

feeding habits

prayGlutinous rice yellowIt consists mainly of ants (42%), followed by beetles (26%), bedbugs and earthworms, depending on which is most prevalent in season (Davidson 1956).

conservation status

According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the slimy newt is not considered a threatened or endangered species in its range. However, some species in this rangeGlutinous rice yellowComplex (see other review) may be a candidate for the List of Threatened and Threatened Species (USFWS 1999).

other suggestions

Waxy TurtleIt is now taxonomically defined as a genetic complex of at least thirteen species that can only be discerned through laboratory testing, although many species are indistinguishable in the wild and are therefore still considered a single lineage in this project Subspecies of (Highton)and others.1989)。


James Yung (author), Michigan State University, James Harding (editor), Michigan State University.


near arctic

Lives in a near arctic biogeographic province in the northern part of the New World. This includes Greenland, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and all of North America to the central highlands of Mexico.

Plethodon glutinosus (Northern sticky salamander) (1)

bilateral symmetry

Has body symmetry such that the animal can be divided on a flat surface into two halves reflected in the mirror. A bilaterally symmetrical animal has a dorsal and ventral side, and a front and rear side. Commonality of bilaterally symmetrical animals.

variable temperature

Animals that must regulate their body temperature using heat gained from the environment and behavioral adaptations.


Forest biomes are dominated by trees; otherwise, forest biomes can have large precipitation and seasonal variations.


A drastic change in the shape or structure of an animal that occurs as it grows. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" means that larvae resemble adults and gradually transform into adult forms, and "complete metamorphosis" means profound changes between larval and adult forms. Butterflies are complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers are incomplete metamorphosis.

to moths

Has the ability to move from one place to another.

native range

The area in which the animal occurs naturally, the area where the animal is endemic.


Conant, R., J. Collins. 1998.A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America, Third Edition, Extended Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin & Co.

Cowley, M. 1998. "'Native Florida' – the lungless salamander" (online). Date accessed: November 12,

Davidson, J. 1956. Notes on the feeding habits of the mucus salamander _Plethodon glutinosus_.herpetology,12(2):129-131。

Feder, M. 1983. Integrating the ecology and physiology of the toothless salamander.herpetology,39:291-310。

Grobman, A. 1944. Distribution of the _Plethodon_ genus salamanders in the eastern United States and Canada.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,45:261-316。

Highton, R. 1962. Geographical variation in the life history of the mucus salamander.Copia, 1962: 597-613.

Highton, R. 1956. Life history of the slimy salamander _Plethodon glutinosus_ in Florida.Copia,1956:75-93。

Haydn, R., G. Mahal, L. McKesson. 1989. Biochemical evolution of the mucus salamander of the _Plethodon glutinosus_ complex in the eastern United States.Illinois Biology Monograph,57。

Marvin, G. 1998. Interspecific aggression and spatial relationships of the salamanders _Plethodon kentucki_ and _Plethodon glutinosus_: Evidence for interspecies interference competition.canadian journal of zoology,76:94-103。

Organ, J. 1960. Courtship and seminal vesicles of the salamander _Plethodon glutinosus_.Copia,1960:34-40。

US Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Division, Information Management Branch, 1999. Accessed November 12,


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